Nephrology is the subspecialty of internal medicine that focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the Kidney.
Although the prevention and identification and management of early kidney disease is a large part of general internal medicine practice, nephrologists are usually called upon to assist and manage more complex or advanced nephrologic disorders.
Subspecialties of the cardiology field include cardiac electrophysiology, echocardiography, interventional cardiology and nuclear cardiology.
Symptoms that can indicate a heart problem include :-
- Urine abnormalities such as excess excretion of protein, sugar, blood, casts, and crystals
- Acute, sudden, long-term or chronic Renal failure
- Kidney infections
- Acid-base fluctuations
- Kidney and bladder stones
- Effects of diseases like diabetes and hypertension on the kidneys